Madrid (EFE).- More than eight million Ukrainians have been forced to leave their country since Russian troops invaded it a year ago and have sought refuge in other European countries. Spain is one of them: in these twelve months it has granted temporary protection to almost 170,000 and 13,695 have found a job.
The unprecedented exodus caused by the pink invasion led to the activation of the European temporary protection directive for the first time, drawn up 20 years ago after the conflict in the Balkans, which guarantees the displaced persons a residence and work permit and access to healthcare, education and financial aid.
As of February 16, 167,596 citizens and residents of Ukraine (63% women and 37% men) have obtained this status, according to the latest data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Valencian Community and Catalonia, the regions with the most protections
78% of the temporary protections granted are concentrated in the Valencian Community (45,159), Catalonia (38,482), Andalusia (23,922) and Madrid (23,587).
They are followed by Murcia (5,328), the Canary Islands (4,359), the Basque Country (4,144), Castilla y León (3,960), Aragón (3,613), the Balearic Islands (3,178), Castilla-La Mancha (2,925), Galicia (2,848), Navarra ( 1,635), Asturias (1,584) and Cantabria (1,500).
Below a thousand are Extremadura (743), La Rioja (595), Melilla (19) and Ceuta (15).
Before the Russian invasion, the Ukrainian population registered in Spain was 110,977 people (57.6% women and 47.3 men) and 96,687 had a residence permit. At the end of 2022, the Ukrainians registered in the register amounted to 193,292 (61.5% women and 38.5% men), and 157,180 had residence documentation and, for those over 16 years of age, also work documentation, according to the latest data published by the National Statistics Institute (INE).
Of the 109,388 Ukrainians of working age with authorization thanks to temporary protection, only 13,695 (13%) were registered with the Social Security as of December 31, 2022. Of these, 2,013 work in hospitality, 1,170 in construction and 1,064 in programming, consultancy and other computer-related activities.
More than 37,000 Ukrainians enrolled in school
The Valencian Community, Madrid, Catalonia and Andalusia host 74% of the 37,208 Ukrainian refugees who have been educated in Spain since the Russian invasion of their country began, according to the latest INE data published on December 31, 2022.
By educational levels, 36.2% are concentrated in Primary Education (13,500), 23% in Secondary Education and Basic Vocational Training (8,570), 19.1% in other studies such as the Official School of Languages and Adult Education ( 7,116), 15% in Early Childhood Education (5,613) and 3.1% in Baccalaureate and FP Middle and Higher Education (1,178).
Almost 92,000 refugees have passed through reception centers
The arrival of thousands of Ukrainians has put Spain’s reception and asylum structure to the test. The Ministry of Inclusion, Social Security and Migrations has launched four Reception, Attention and Referral Centers (CREADE) in Madrid, Alicante, Barcelona and Malaga, through which 91,889 refugees have passed through 31 January.
Through the Pozuelo de Alarcón (Madrid), the first to start operating on March 11, 2022, 22,745 people have passed; 25,588 have done so for Barcelona; The one in Alicante has assisted 31,368 people, and the one in Malaga has passed through 12,188 refugees.
Of all of them, 12,898 have requested emergency shelter and assistance has been given to 43,736 families, according to Inclusion data.
Refugee profile: 31-year-old woman, with higher education
The profile of the Ukrainians cared for in the assistance centers is clear: a 31-year-old woman with higher education, among which economists, computer scientists and engineers stand out.
31% of the people cared for in the CREADE are minors and 62% of the adults are women. The average age of the refugees is 31 years and, by age group, the majority are under 17, followed by the group between 18 and 34 and the group between 35 and 49.
According to the analysis of the questionnaires compiled in the four centers, 62% of the people who have gone through them have higher education; 29% have completed vocational training or high school and 7% have secondary education.
26.4% of the Ukrainians served come from the kyiv region, while 8.8% come from Odessa, 8.5% from Kharkiv and 7% have come from Lviv.